March 20-22 was our trip to Venice (Venezia)! This was a much more laid-back weekend than Sicily: we left early Friday morning and got back Sunday evening, rather than going Thursday night through Monday morning. And we were glad for the extra time. We didn't try to see everything, but rather had a slow weekend wandering through the narrow (and often confusing!) streets of the city.

Cathedral of Venice (San Marco) and the porphyry statue of the tetrarchy attached to the church; this is a statue I've studied in class this semester

Palazzo Ducale, the Doge's Palace; at right, the flag of Venice with the winged lion representing St. Mark

Boats and Bridges: The main island of Venice, the old part of the city, has no cars or motorized vehicles of any kind; instead, the canals and bridges over them serve as the main transportation routes of the city.

The Accademia Bridge and the Rialto Bridge

Above: a "boat stop." Vaporetti, or water buses, are a form of public transportation; however, they're very expensive and used mainly by tourists. We just walked.

Gondolas! Gondolas are really just a tourist attraction, the actual residents of the city have motorboats or walk. The gondolas are all very elaborate contraptions!

Canals: they're everywhere.

Churches and Palazzi: Venice, as one of the northernmost cities of Italy, has architecture that's heavily influenced by Northern Europe. Here you can see some of the Gothic influences in its architecture.

At left, a Gothic-style apse with tall, narrow windows; at right, the Scala del Bovolo, or Snail Staircase since it looks like a spiral snail's shell (part of a private palace)

San Zeccaria, a Baroque church

On Sunday morning we walked down to the Piazza San Marco for the last time and walked by the Armory and the park of the Venice Biennale. We couldn't figure out what was going on in the park: it was messy and deserted, almost as if a big festival had taken place recently and never been cleaned up, but the pavilions were all locked and looked as if they'd been that way for a long time. At any rate, I had fun taking pictures of all the different pavilions. Here are a few:

United States and Japan


Later that afternoon we took the train back to Rome. Venice is beautiful--I would definitely go back!


After a short week back at school after spring break, we left on Thursday the 12th for Sicily! This was our most difficult trip, requiring four days of travel and a combination of buses and trains through four cities in Sicily. We took an overnight train on Thursday night which took us from Rome to Palermo, the capital of the autonomous region/island of Sicily. Palermo and Siracusa, another major city, traded off as capitals of the island in the past; Palermo, however, has royal buildings left from the Norman rule of the city that Siracusa does not.

The Palazzo Normanni, the Norman Palace, and at right, the interior of the famous Cappella Palatina, Palatine Chapel, covered in medieval mosaic. We got to take a tour of the palace, which today is used as a government building by the governing bodies of Sicily.

The Cathedral (Duomo) of Palermo and a detail of the carving

More details of the duomo, dome and bell towers

La Martorana, a church in Palermo with more medieval and Byzantine mosaics

The National Archaeological Museum in Palermo has architectural fragments, like these above, from all the major temples in Sicily; they were brought here for preservation. You can see the monumental size of these reliefs and entablatures by the size of the person standing next to them.

After spending Friday night in Palermo we took a train on Saturday to the resort town of Agrigento, on the opposite, southern coast of the island. Agrigento is reknowned for its "Valley of the Temples," which is actually a high ridge on which are located three nearly-intact Greco-Roman temples and two ruined ones. Sicily was originally settled by the Greeks and was a Greek colony before it was conquered by the Romans, Arabs, Normans, Spanish, and finally Italians.

Temple of Hercules

Temple of Concordia

View back toward Temple of Hercules; at right, a giant Atlas figure that came from the Temple to Jupiter, below

Left: Temple of the Dioscuri; Right: ruins from the Temple of Jupiter, including a massive column capital.

After spending most of the day in Agrigento we took an evening bus to Catania on the east coast of the island; Catania is known as a university city thanks to the very large University of Catania located there. It's below Mt. Etna and thus has been destroyed by the volcano many times in its history. Catania was my least favorite city as it was the dirtiest and least historically interesting, but we only spent the night there and a few hours the next morning before catching a bus to Siracusa.

Duomo of Catania and Piazza degli Elefanti, notice the elephant statue that's supporting the obelisk. The elephant is the symbol of the city. Most of the city's buildings are made of the grey volcanic stone seen in the buildings above.

A Baroque fountain (most of Catania is Baroque architecture today since its last destruction was in the 1600s, right before the Baroque period) and Mt. Etna in the background from the bus window.

In Siracusa we weren't able to figure out how to leave our luggage at the station (the station employees were most unhelpful) so we had to tow our luggage with us the entire time we were there! This prevented us from seeing the museums and some of the sights, but the area we did see was beautiful. We spent the whole time on the Ortygia Island, the oldest part of the city where there were few cars and several interesting piazzas.

Bay of Siracusa, and locks attached to the bridge onto the island of Ortygia

Duomo of Siracusa and the Piazza Duomo

Fountain of Arethusa: a Greek myth tells of the nymph Arethusa, a follower of Artemis, who was pursued by a man; Artemis took pity on her and turned her into this pool of water to help her escape from him.

After a pleasant day in Siracusa we got on the night train back to Rome, arriving on Monday morning in time to shower and then head to class!

Cultural notes about Sicily: We were warned by multiple friends that the people in Sicily aren't very nice, that the men are aggressive, and that the cities are dangerous--but we didn't encounter anything like that at all! Everyone we met was very helpful and nice to us (perhaps because we always spoke Italian), and even all the traveling was pretty simple. Catania, I'll admit, was dirty, but overall we felt very safe everywhere and had a great time. Perhaps everyone seemed nicer in comparison with Tunisia, where the vendors really are aggressive, but our travels in Sicily were easy compared to travel there. The food was good and the countryside we saw from the train and buses was beautiful. I would especially recommend Agrigento, although it's more expensive there than in the other cities. Sicily is especially good to visit for Baroque architecture and as a place to see many different architectural styles together in one place. But if you go--fly, don't take the night trains! The night trains are much less glamorous (and comfortable) than they sound.


Ostia Antica and Castel Sant'Angelo

Dear Readers,
Sorry for the delay in posting; I realize it has been a couple weeks since my last post, but I've been very busy, as you shall see!

The weekend after our return from Tunisia, Sara and I decided to see some sights around Rome. On Saturday the 7th, we decided to go to Ostia Antica, the original port of Rome. It's a quick trip that just requires having a metro pass to take the train to the town. The modern town of Ostia is now pretty far from the coast due to the silting of the harbor that began in ancient times, and since the old town was abandoned when the harbor filled, the ancient streets and buildings are largely preserved. The preservation isn't as good as at Pompeii because the town has been exposed to the elements over the centuries, but what's left is still impressive.

The theater at left, and at right, carved masks, probably a part of the theater decoration

The ancient main street (decumanus) and apartment buildings, with shops on the first floor

One of the bath complexes: at left, the palestrum, or open field for athletic practice (the Italian word for gym today is "palestra") and at right, mosaic floor decoration of athletes.

On Sunday the 8th was "Women's Day" in Italy, so Sara and I, being women, were able to get into all the state museums for free! We decided to go to the Castel Sant'Angelo, the ancient Tomb of the Roman Emperor Hadrian later converted into a medieval castle and stronghold for the popes. It's close to where we live and connected to the Vatican by a wall that allowed the pope to escape to the castle when he was threatened.

Two views of the castle/mausoleum

The castle was built on top of the original round structure of Hadrian's mausoleum, and has a heliocoidal ramp on the interior that spirals around the inside wall of the structure up to the level where the castle was built. Inside the castle we saw leftover cannons, cannonballs, and other equipment from the castle's active days, and two art exhibits.

At left, view from the top; at right, statue of the Archangel Michael for whom the castle is named (Castel Sant'Angelo, Castle of the St. Angel). The Ponte Angelo that crosses the Tiber and leads to the castle has sculptures of angels on it by Bernini's workshop.